As for the history of Athena's name it is glorious.
Because Athens was the greatest city of all two very mighty gods were candidates for being the protectors of the city. It was the powerful Posidon who was Zeus's brother and the lord of the surface and the depths of the oceans. On his head he had a crown and he was always holding a trident as his sceptre. His chariot was a huge shell pulled by dolphins. His rival was Athena who was the godess of wisdom and the daughter of Zeus. She always wore a helmet with the sign of widsom on it - an owl. On her hands she was always holding a spear because she was the virgin warrior of fair fights. The contest took place at the top of Acropolis in front of Zeus who was the king of gods.
So Posidon hit the ground with his trident and a beautiful white horse appeared and he said to Jupiter that he was going to give Athens glory by helping it winning in many wars and conquering many other cities.
Athena hit the ground with her spear and an olive tree appeared and she said that she was going to give Athens glory by keeping peace so it could create a great civilization because olive branches were the sign of peace. So Jupiter decided that Athena should be the protector of the city which took its name after hers and at the top of the Acropolis a magnificent in its plainess temple was built - Parthenon which was representative of Athena's personality.
thanks to Chrisida in Greece for this history